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List Important International Organizations and their Headquarters
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List Important International Organizations and their Headquarters

List Important International Organizations and their Headquarters

  1. World Trade Organization (WTO) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Roberto Azevedo
  • Founded on – 1 January, 1995
  1. World Health Organization (WHO) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Dr Margaret Chan
  • Founded on – 7 April, 1948
  1. World Economic Forum (WEF) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Klaus Schwab
  • Founded on – 1971
  1. International Labour Organisation (ILO) – 
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Guy Ryder
  • Founded on – 1919
  1. United Nations Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – MukhisaKituyi
  • Founded on – 1964
  1. World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Michel Jarraud
  • Founded on – 1950
  1. International Monetary Fund (IMF) –
  • Headquarters – Washington DC, US
  • Head – Christine Lagarde
  • Founded on – 27 December, 1945
  1. The World Bank –
  • Headquarters – Washington DC, US
  • Founded on – July, 1944
  • President- Jim Young Kim

10. United Nations Organization (UN) –

  • Headquarters – New York, US
  • Secretary general– Ban Ki-moon
  • Founded on – 1945
  1. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) –
  • Headquarters – New York, US
  • Head – Anthony Lake
  • Founded on – December, 1946
  1. United Nations Education Scientific & Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) –
  • Headquarters – Paris, France
  • Head – Irina Bokova
  • Founded on – 16 November, 1945
  1. Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) –
  • Headquarters – Paris, France
  • Head – Jose Angel Gurria
  • Founded on – 30 September, 1961
  1. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) –
  • Headquarters – Brussels, Belgium
  • Head – Philip M. Breedlove
  • Founded on – 4 April, 1949
  1. International Maritime Organisation (IMO) –
  • Headquarters – London, UK
  • Head – Ki Tack Lim
  • Founded on – 1959
  1. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) –
  • Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
  • Head – Yukiya Amano
  • Founded on – July 29, 1957
  1. Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) –
  • Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
  • Head – Diezani Alison-Madueke
  • Founded on – 1961-62
  1. International Olympic Committee (IOC) –
  • Headquarters – Lausanne, Switzerland 
  • Head – Thomas Bach
  • Founded on – 23 June, 1894
  1. Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAO) –
  • Headquarters – Rome, Italy
  • Head – Jose Graziano da Silva
  • Founded on -16 October, 1945
Soils in India
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Soils in India

Soil is the thin upper most part of the earth which is formed due to weathering of rocks and decomposition of living material. There are various types of soil found in India :

 

  1. Alluvial Soil in India (Inside Black line in map)
  • This soil coveratleast 40 % area of India.
  • Occupy the plains ( from Punjab to Assam ) and also occur in the valleys of Narmada and Tapti in M.P. & Gujarat, Mahanadi in the MP and Orissa, Godawari in A.R and Cauvery in T.N.
  • This is divided  into two types: a) Khadar ( newly formed alluvial soil )  b) Bhangar (old alluvial soil).
  • rich in Lime, Potash and Alluvium but deficit in nitrogen and humus.

Characteristics of Alluvial soil:

  1. Respond well to irrigation and manuring.
  2. Good for both rabi and kharif crops.
  3. Suitable for wheat, sugarcane, rice, cotton and oilseeds.
  4. In delta region, they are ideal for jute cultivation.
  1. Black Soil in India(Under black outline in the map)
  • Also called Regur and is ideal for cotton crop. These soils have been formed due to the solidification of lava spread over large areas during volcanic activity in the Deccan Plateau, thousands of years ago.
  • They are black due to compounds of iron and aluminium ( also because of titaniferous magnetite ).
  • Mainly found in Deccan Plateau – Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.
  • Apart from cotton cultivation, these fertile soils are suitable for growing cereals, oilseeds, citrus fruits and vegetables, tobacco and sugarcane.
  • They have high moisture retention level.
  • Lack in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter
  1. Red Soil in India
  • They are mainly formed due to the decomposition of ancient crystalline rocks like granites and gneisses and from rock types rich in minerals such as iron and magnesium. The term ‘red soil’ is due to the wide diffusion of iron oxides through the materials of the soil.
  • Covers almost the whole of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, S.E. Maharashtra, Chhatisgarh, parts of Orissa, Jharkhand and Bundelkhand.
  • Generally deficient in nitrogen, humus and phosphorus, but rich in potash.
  • Suitable for rice, millets, tobacco and vegetables ( also groundnuts and potatoes at higher elevations ).
  1. Laterite Soil in India:
  • Found in typical monsoon conditions – under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods. The alterations of wet and dry season leads to the leaching away of siliceous matter and lime of the rocks and a soil rich in oxides of iron and aluminium compounds is left behind.
  • Found in parts of Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Rajmahal hills, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, etc.
  • Poor in nitrogen and minerals.
  • Best for tea, coffee, rubber, cinchona, coconut and suitable for rice and millet cultivation if manured.
  1. Forest and Mountain Soils:
  • Such soils are mainly found on the hill slopes covered by forests. The formation of these soils is mainly governed by the characteristic deposition of organic matter derived from forest growth.
  • In the Himalayan region, such soils are mainly found in valley basins, depressions and less steeply inclined slopes. Apart from the Himalayan region, the forest soils occur in higher hills in south and the peninsular region.
  • Very rich in humus but are deficient in Potash, phosphorous and lime and needs fertilizers.
  • Plantation of tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits.
  1. Arid and Desert Soils
  • A large part of the arid and semi – arid region in Rajasthan and adjoining areas of Punjab and Haryana lying between the Indus and the Aravallis receiving less than 50 cm of annual rainfall is affected by desert conditions.
  • This area is covered by a mantle of sand which inhibits soil growth.
  • The phosphate content of these soils is as high as in normal alluvial soils. Nitrogen is originally low but its deficiency is made up to some extent by the availability of nitrogen in the form of nitrates. Thus the presence of phosphates and nitrates make them fertile soils wherever moisture is available.

The changes in the cropping pattern in the Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area are a living example of the utility of the desert soils.

Soils in India
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Soils in India

Soil is the thin upper most part of the earth which is formed due to weathering of rocks and decomposition of living material. There are various types of soil found in India : 

  1. Alluvial Soil in India (Inside Black line in map)
  • This soil coveratleast 40 % area of India.
  • Occupy the plains ( from Punjab to Assam ) and also occur in the valleys of Narmada and Tapti in M.P. & Gujarat, Mahanadi in the MP and Orissa, Godawari in A.R and Cauvery in T.N.
  • This is divided  into two types: a) Khadar ( newly formed alluvial soil )  b) Bhangar (old alluvial soil).
  • rich in Lime, Potash and Alluvium but deficit in nitrogen and humus.

Characteristics of Alluvial soil:

  1. Respond well to irrigation and manuring.
  2. Good for both rabi and kharif crops.
  3. Suitable for wheat, sugarcane, rice, cotton and oilseeds.
  4. In delta region, they are ideal for jute cultivation.
  1. Black Soil in India(Under black outline in the map)
  • Also called Regur and is ideal for cotton crop. These soils have been formed due to the solidification of lava spread over large areas during volcanic activity in the Deccan Plateau, thousands of years ago.
  • They are black due to compounds of iron and aluminium ( also because of titaniferous magnetite ).
  • Mainly found in Deccan Plateau – Maharashtra, Gujarat, M.P, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.
  • Apart from cotton cultivation, these fertile soils are suitable for growing cereals, oilseeds, citrus fruits and vegetables, tobacco and sugarcane.
  • They have high moisture retention level.
  • Lack in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic matter
  1. Red Soil in India
  • They are mainly formed due to the decomposition of ancient crystalline rocks like granites and gneisses and from rock types rich in minerals such as iron and magnesium. The term ‘red soil’ is due to the wide diffusion of iron oxides through the materials of the soil.
  • Covers almost the whole of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, S.E. Maharashtra, Chhatisgarh, parts of Orissa, Jharkhand and Bundelkhand.
  • Generally deficient in nitrogen, humus and phosphorus, but rich in potash.
  • Suitable for rice, millets, tobacco and vegetables ( also groundnuts and potatoes at higher elevations ).
  1. Laterite Soil in India:
  • Found in typical monsoon conditions – under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods. The alterations of wet and dry season leads to the leaching away of siliceous matter and lime of the rocks and a soil rich in oxides of iron and aluminium compounds is left behind.
  • Found in parts of Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Rajmahal hills, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, West Bengal, Assam, Tamil Nadu, etc.
  • Poor in nitrogen and minerals.
  • Best for tea, coffee, rubber, cinchona, coconut and suitable for rice and millet cultivation if manured.
  1. Forest and Mountain Soils:
  • Such soils are mainly found on the hill slopes covered by forests. The formation of these soils is mainly governed by the characteristic deposition of organic matter derived from forest growth.
  • In the Himalayan region, such soils are mainly found in valley basins, depressions and less steeply inclined slopes. Apart from the Himalayan region, the forest soils occur in higher hills in south and the peninsular region.
  • Very rich in humus but are deficient in Potash, phosphorous and lime and needs fertilizers.
  • Plantation of tea, coffee, spices and tropical fruits.
  1. Arid and Desert Soils
  • A large part of the arid and semi – arid region in Rajasthan and adjoining areas of Punjab and Haryana lying between the Indus and the Aravallis receiving less than 50 cm of annual rainfall is affected by desert conditions.
  • This area is covered by a mantle of sand which inhibits soil growth.
  • The phosphate content of these soils is as high as in normal alluvial soils. Nitrogen is originally low but its deficiency is made up to some extent by the availability of nitrogen in the form of nitrates. Thus the presence of phosphates and nitrates make them fertile soils wherever moisture is available.

The changes in the cropping pattern in the Indira Gandhi Canal Command Area are a living example of the utility of the desert soils.

UNESCO World Heritage Sites
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UNESCO World Heritage Sites

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

This list contains the places chosen by the UNESCO as heritage sites in India.UNESCO is a specialized agency of  United Nations.UNESCO was created for the conservation and protection of the worlds inheritance of books,works of art and monuments of history and science.As of now there are 36 world Heritage sites in India.28 cultural sites and 8 natural sites and also sites which are on tentative list.

unesco-world-heritage-sites-in-indiaList of 25 cultural Heritage Sites.
Name of the Site Location Year of Inscription
Agra Fort Uttar Pradesh 1983
Ajanta Caves Maharashtra 1983
Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi Madhya Pradesh 1989
Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park Gujarat 2004
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) Maharashtra 2004
Churches and Convents of Goa Goa 1986
Elephanta Caves Maharashtra 1987
Ellora Cave Maharashtra 1983
Fatehpur Sikri Uttar Pradesh 1986
Great Living Chola Temples Tamil Nadu 1987
Group of Monuments at Hampi Karnataka 1986
Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram Tamil Nadu 1984
Group of Monuments at Pattadakal Karnataka 1987
Hill Forts of Rajasthan Rajasthan 2013
Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi Delhi 1993
Khajuraho Group of Monuments Madhya Pradesh 1986
Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Bihar 2002
Mountain Railways of India Darjeeling, West Bengal
Nilgiri, Tamil Nadu
Kalka-Shimla, Himachal Pradesh
1999
Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi Delhi 1993
Rani-ki-Vav (the Queen’s Stepwell) Gujarat 2014
Red Fort Complex Delhi 2007
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka Madhya Pradesh 2003
Sun Temple, Konârak Orissa 1984
Taj Mahal Uttar Pradesh 1983
The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur Rajasthan 2010
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier Chandigarh 2016
Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) Bihar 2016
Ahmedabad Gujarat 2017
List of Seven Natural Heritage Sites 
Name Of the Site Location Year of Inscription
Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area Himachal Pradesh 2014
Kaziranga National Park Assam 1985
Keoladeo National Park Rajasthan 1985
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary Assam 1985
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks Uttarakhand 1988
Sundarbans National Park West Bengal 1987
Western Ghats Covers Four states
(Kerala ,Karnataka,Tamilnadu and Maharashtra)
2012
Khangchendzonga National Park Sikkim 2016

Note: In the case of western ghats a  total of thirty nine properties (including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests) were designated as world heritage sites – twenty in the state of Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra

Also there is a  tentative list of world heritage sites in India,which is already mentioned in the given below link.

Three new sites added in 2016 : Nalanda Mahavihara (Nalanda University) in Bihar ,The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier in Chandigarh and Khangchendzonga National Park in Sikkim.

In 2017, the Walled City of Ahmedabad, founded by Sultan Ahmed Shah in the 15th century, has been declared India’s first World Heritage City.

Indian Monuments and Sites Nominated for UNESCO Heritage sites

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